It is a part of sovereignty to transfer the penalty due to the crime of one upon another, and substitute a sufferer, with the sufferer’s own consent, in the place of a criminal, whom he had a mind to deliver from a deserved punishment. God transferred the sins of men upon Christ, and inflicted on him a punishment for them. He summed up the debts of man, charged them upon the score of Christ, imputing to him the guilt, and inflicting upon him the penalty: “The Lord hath laid upon him the iniquity of us all” (Isaiah 53:6); he made them all to meet upon his back: “He hath made him to be sin for us” (2 Corinthians 5:21).

—Stephen Charnock
The Complete Works of Stephen Charnock (London: James Nisbet and Co., 1864–1866), 2:458–459.


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